마음의 안정을 찾기 위하여 - Linux - File And Directory Handling
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Linux - File And Directory Handling
리눅스/리눅스 프로그래밍 | 2007/03/09 14:45
출처 : http://www.iu.hio.no/~mark/unix/unix.html

원문중 파일/디렉토리 핸들링 부분만 발췌하였음.


Files and directories

All of the regular C functions from the standard library are available to UNIX programmers. The standard functions only address the issue of reading and writing to files however, they do not deal with operating system specific attributes such as file permissions and file types. Nor is there a mechanisms for obtaining lists of files within a directory. The reason for these omissions is that they are operating system dependent. To find out about these other attributes POSIX describes some standard UNIX system calls.

opendir, readdir

Files and directories are handled by functions defined in the header file `dirent.h'. In earlier UNIX systems the file `dir.h' was used -- and the definitions were slightly different, but not much. To get a list of files in a directory we must open the directory and read from it -- just like a file. (A directory is just a file which contains data on its entries). The commands are

opendir
closedir
readdir

See the manual pages for dirent. These functions return pointers to a dirent structure which is defined in the file `/usr/include/dirent.h'. Here is an example ls command which lists the contents of the directory `/etc'. This header defines a structure

struct dirent 
   {
   off_t                d_off;		/* offset of next disk dir entry */
   unsigned long        d_fileno;	/* file number of entry */
   unsigned short       d_reclen;	/* length of this record */
   unsigned short       d_namlen;	/* length of string in d_name */
   char	                d_name[255+1];	/* name (up to MAXNAMLEN + 1) */
   };

which can be used to obtain information from the directory nodes.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <dirent.h>

main ()

{ DIR *dirh;
  struct dirent *dirp;
  static char mydir[20] = "/etc";
  
if ((dirh = opendir(mydir)) == NULL)
   {
   perror("opendir");
   return;
   }

for (dirp = readdir(dirh); dirp != NULL; dirp = readdir(dirh))
   {
   printf("Got dir entry: %s\n",dirp->d_name);
   }

closedir(dirh);
}

Notice that reading from a directory is like reading from a file with fgets(), but the entries are filenames rather than lines of text.

stat()

To determine the file properties or statistics we use the function call `stat()' or its corollary `lstat()'. Both these functions find out information about files (permissions, owner, filetype etc). The only difference between them is the way in which they treat symbolic links. If `stat' is used on a symbolic link, it stats the file the link points to rather than the link itself. If `lstat' is used, the data refer to the link. Thus, to detect a link, we must use `lstat', See section lstat and readlink.

The data in the `stat' structure are defined in the file `/usr/include/sys/stat.h'. Here are the most important structures.

struct	stat 
   {
   dev_t        st_dev;             /* device number*/
   ino_t        st_ino;             /* file inode */
   mode_t       st_mode;            /* permission */
   short        st_nlink;           /* Number of hardlinks to file */
   uid_t        st_uid;             /* user id */
   gid_t        st_gid;             /* group id */
   dev_t        st_rdev; 
   off_t        st_size;            /* size in bytes */
   time_t       st_atime;           /* time file last accessed */
   time_t       st_mtime;           /* time file contents last modified */
   time_t       st_ctime;           /* time last attribute change */
   long         st_blksize;
   long         st_blocks;
   };

lstat and readlink

The function `stat()' treats symbolic links as though they were the files they point to. In other words, if we use `stat()' to read a symbolic link, we end up reading the file the link points to and not the link itself--- we never see symbolic links. To avoid this problem, there is a different version of the stat function called `lstat()' which is identical to `stat()' except that it treats links as links and not as the files they point to. This means that we can test whether a file is a symbolic link, only if we use `lstat()'. (See the next paragraph.)

Once we have identified a file to be a symbolic link, we use the `readlink()' function to obtain the name of the file the link points to.

#define bufsize 512
char buffer[bufsize];

readlink("/path/to/file",buffer,bufsize);

The result is returned in the string buffer.

stat() test macros

As we have already mentioned, the UNIX mode bits contain not only information about what permissions a file has, but also bits describing the type of file -- whether it is a directory or a link etc. There are macros defined in UNIX to extract this information from the `st_mode' member of the `stat' structure. They are defined in the `stat.h' headerfile. Here are some examples.

#define	S_ISBLK(m)    /* is block device */
#define	S_ISCHR(m)    /* is character device */
#define	S_ISDIR(m)    /* is directory */
#define	S_ISFIFO(m)   /* is fifo pipe/socket */
#define	S_ISREG(m)    /* is regular (normal) file */

#define	S_ISLNK(m)    /* is symbolic link */  /* Not POSIX */
#define	S_ISSOCK(m)   /* is a lock */

#define	S_IRWXU 	/* rwx, owner */
#define		S_IRUSR /* read permission, owner */
#define		S_IWUSR /* write permission, owner */
#define		S_IXUSR	/* execute/search permission, owner */
#define	S_IRWXG		/* rwx, group */
#define		S_IRGRP	/* read permission, group */
#define		S_IWGRP	/* write permission, grougroup */
#define		S_IXGRP	/* execute/search permission, group */
#define	S_IRWXO		/* rwx, other */
#define		S_IROTH	/* read permission, other */
#define		S_IWOTH	/* write permission, other */
#define		S_IXOTH	/* execute/search permission, other */

These return true or false when acting on the mode member. Here is an example See section Example filing program.

struct stat statvar;

stat("file",&statvar); 

/* test return values */

if (S_ISDIR(statvar.st_mode))
   {
   printf("Is a directory!");
   }

Example filing program

The following example program demonstrates the use of the directory functions in dirent and the stat function call.

/********************************************************************/
/*                                                                  */
/* Reading directories and `statting' files                         */
/*                                                                  */
/********************************************************************/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <dirent.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>

#define DIRNAME "/."
#define bufsize 255

/********************************************************************/

main ()

{ DIR *dirh;
  struct dirent *dirp;
  struct stat statbuf;
  char *pathname[bufsize];
  char *linkname[bufsize];
 
if ((dirh = opendir(DIRNAME)) == NULL)
   {
   perror("opendir");
   exit(1);
   }
 
for (dirp = readdir(dirh); dirp != NULL; dirp = readdir(dirh))
   {
   if (strcmp(".",dirp->d_name) == 0 || strcmp("..",dirp->d_name) == 0)
      {
      continue;
      }
 
   if (strcmp("lost+found",dirp->d_name) == 0)
      {
      continue;
      }

   sprintf(pathname,"%s/%s",DIRNAME,dirp->d_name);

   if (lstat(pathname,&statbuf) == -1)                /* see man stat */
     {
     perror("stat");
     continue;
     }

   if (S_ISREG(statbuf.st_mode))
      {
      printf("%s is a regular file\n",pathname);
      };

   if (S_ISDIR(statbuf.st_mode))
      {
      printf("%s is a directory\n",pathname);
      }

   if (S_ISLNK(statbuf.st_mode))
      {
      bzero(linkname,bufsize);                         /* clear string */
      readlink(pathname,linkname,bufsize);
      printf("%s is a link to %s\n",pathname,linkname);
      }

   printf("The mode of %s is %o\n\n",pathname,statbuf.st_mode & 07777);
   }

closedir(dirh);
}
2007/03/09 14:45 2007/03/09 14:45
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